GENETICS, BREEDING, STUDY OF VARIETIES
Kushnareva M.S. (2016): The assessment of apple varieties from the VNIISPK apple breeding program grown in a prostrate-shrubby form in the south of Western Siberia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 1-7. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/30.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
In order to evaluate the best apple cultivars grown in a prostrate-shrubby form in the south of Western Siberia conditions, 22 apple cultivars of VNIISPK breeding have been studied. In severe winters the crowns of apple cultivars of VNIISPK breeding completely die above the line of snow cover. For the years of investigations the cultivars Yubilar (11.6 kg/tree) and Chistotel (10.0 kg/tree) were considered to be the best in yield. The studied apple cultivars showed high resistance to scab (leaves and fruits). An average content of sugars (from 6.0 up to 7.7%) was revealed in fruits. Fruits of the Bolotovskoe cultivar had an average acidity (0,5%). The following cultivars had a high sugar-acidic index: Bolotovskoye (15.4), Kandil Orlovskiy (10.3) and Orlovskaya Girlanda (10.1). The following cultivars had an average content of vitamin C: Kandil Orlovskiy (10.7 mg/100g), Orlovskiy Pioneer (11.3) Bolotovskoye (12.0), Kurnakovskoe (12.5) and Orlovskaya Girlanda (12.5 mg/100g). Bolotovskoe had the largest content of pectin in fruits (1.3%). The following cultivars had a high content of protopectin and the sum of pectin substances: Bolotovskoe (0.90 and 2.07% respectively) and Orlovskiy Pioneer (1.08 and 2.0% respectively).
1. Ermakov A.I., Arasimovich V.V., Yarosh N.P., Peruanskii Yu.V., Lukovnikova G.A., Ikonnikova M.I. (1978): Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (ed.). Agropromizdat, Leningrad. (In Russian).
2. Sedov E.N., Krasova N.G., Zhdanov V.V., Dolmatov E.A., Mozhar N.V. (1999): Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). In: E.N. Sedov, T.P. Ogoltsova (eds.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 253-300 (In Russian).
3. Sedov E.N. (2011): Breeding and new apple varieties. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
Sedov E.N., Makarkina M.A., Sedysheva G.A., Ozherelieva Z.E., Serova Z.M. (2016): Priority trends and results in apple breeding. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 8-17. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/31.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
The results of the innovational trends in apple breeding that have been conducted in the All Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding for many years are given in the list (breeding for scab immune, triploid and columnar apple varieties). The efficiency of these trends has been endorsed. The results of breeding are shown. The characteristics of new apple varieties for winter hardiness and biochemical composition of fruit are given.
1. Anin A. (2016): Aleksey Semikhatov on the border between ignorance and knowledge. V mire nauki, 4: 50-55. (In Russian).
2. Vavilov N.I. (1964): Problems of Immunity of Cultivated Plants. Selected Works, 4. Moscow, Leningrad, Nauka. (In Russian).
3. Kachalkin M. V. (2013): Apple of the 21 century. Moscow. (In Russian).
4. Kichina V. V. (2002): All about columnar type of apple trees. Moscow, VSTISP. (In Russian)
5. Kichina V.V. (2011): Principles of orchard plant improvement. VSTISP, Moscow. (In Russian).
6. Ermakov A.I., Arasimovich V.V., Yarosh N.P., Peruanskii Yu.V., Lukovnikova G.A., Ikonnikova M.I. (1978): Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (ed.). Agropromizdat, Leningrad. (In Russian).
7. Michurin I.V. (1948) Breeding is a key factor in obtaining plants immune (resistant) to diseases and pests. In: Works in 4 volumes. Moscow, OGIZ, Selkhozgiz, 4:225-230. (In Russian).
8. Sedov E.N. (ed.) (1995): Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
9. Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.) (1999): Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
10. Saveliev N.I., Savelieva I.N. (2009): Features of growth of columnar and apple varieties and forms relative to a genotype and rootstock. In: Proc. Int. Sci. Conf. The establishment of adaptive intensive orchards on dwarf intercalary stocks. Orel, VNIISPK: 114-117. (In Russian).
11. Savelieva N.N. (2016): Biological and genetic features of apple and breeding of scab immune and columnar cultvars. Michurinsk, VNIIGiSPR. (In Russian).
12. Sedov E. N. (2011): Breeding and new apple varieties. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
13. Sedov E.N., Korneeva S.A., Serova Z.M. (2013): Columnar apple trees in the intensive orchard. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian)
14. Sedov E.N., Sedysheva G.A., Serova Z.M., Gorbacheva N.G., Melnik S.A. (2013): Breeding assessment of heteroploid crosses in the development of triploid apple varieties. Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 17(3): 499-508. (In Russian, English abstract).
15. Sedov E.N., Sedysheva G.A., Makarkina M.A., Levgerova N.S., Serova Z.M., Korneyeva S.A., Gorbacheva N.G., Salina E.S., Yanchuk T.V., Pikunova A.V., Ozherelieva Z.E. (2015): The innovations in apple genome modification opening new prospects in breeding. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
16. Sedysheva G.A., Sedov E.N. (1994): Polyploidy and apple breeding. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
17. Sedysheva G.A., Sedov E.N., Gorbacheva N.G., Z Serova.M., Ozherelieva Z.E. (2013): A new donor of breeding important traits suitable to create triploid, adaptive, high-quality apple varieties. Horticulture and viticulture, 1: 13-18. (In Russian, English abstract).
18. Tyurina M.M., Gogoleva G.A. (1978): Accelerated assessment of frost resistance of fruit and berry plants. Methodological recommendations. Moscow, Zonal Research Institute of Horticulture of Non-chernozem zone, 1978. 48 p.
19. Einset J. (1947): Apple breeding enters a new era. Fm Res., N.Y. 13(2): 5.
20. Nilsson-Ehle H. (1944): Some new information about tetraploid apple varieties and their use and role in the breeding of fruit trees. Sveriges pomologiska förening. Arsskrift: 229-237.
Upadysheva G.Yu. (2016): Productivity and longevity of sour cherry trees of different variety-rootstock combinations. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 18-21. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/32.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
The analysis of the long-term data on productivity and logevity of cherry trees in the intensive orchard is given. The dependence of cherry tree durability on a variety and rootstock is shown. The most durable and productive combinations have been revealed: Volochaevka on Moskovia, Volochaevka on AVCh-2, Molodeznaya on Moskovia and Molodeznaya on Izmaylovskiy.
1. Dzhigadlo E.N. (2009): The improvement of breeding methods, the development of sour and sweet cherry cultivars and their rootstocks ecologically adapted to the conditions of the Central region of Russia. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian). 2. Enikeev Kh.K. (1973): Biological features and increase of cherry productivity in the Non-chernozem zone of Russian Federation. In: Increase of yield of sour and sweet cherry, Melitopol: 2-4. (In Russian). 3. Kolesnikova A.F., Kolesnikov A.I., Mukhanin V.G. (1986): Cherry. Moscow, Agropromizdat. (In Russian). 4. Revyakina N.T., Upadysheva G.Yu., Mikheev A.M. (2000): Clone rootstocks for intensive cherry orchards in the Non-chernozem zone of Russia. Moscow, VSTISP. (In Russian). 5. Upadysheva G.Yu., Revyakina N.T. (2001): The productivity analysis of cherry trees grafted on clone rootstocks. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 8: 204-211. (In Russian). 6. Upadysheva G.Yu. (2013): Fruiting stability of cherry grown on clone rootstocks. Horticulture and viticulture, 3: 35-38. (In Russian, English abstract).
BIOLOGY, ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF FRUIT CROPS
Kanshina M.V. (2016): Impact of warm winters on cherry’s variety state. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 22-26. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/33.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
An increased temperature regime during autumn-and-winter period doesn’t promote tempering of cherrys plants and their rest period starting. Low water-holding capacities of this crop, water deficiency result in stress condition of plants and in branches drying and death. Cherrys varieties have been estimated for branches drying intensity and yield after anomalous warm winter 2014–2015. Analysis of 27 breeding lines on branches drying and trees condition has shown that cherry was damaged significantly. Vars. 3-1-11, Mtsenskaya, Lada, Seyanets Lyubskoy, Vostorg, Sevastoppolskaya, Donetskiy velikan have very strong branches drying. Their branches death ranged in 4.0–4.7 points. Vars. Igritskaya, Radonezh, 2-12-11, 3-1-20 are in the group of the most resistant ones (branches drying less than 1 point). Vars. Kisilovaya, Morel bryanskaya, 28-7-17 have rather stronger branches drying (to 2 points). The most important criterion of adaptivity is the trees ability to restore damaged trees parts. Vars. Igritskaya, 2-12-11, Morel bryanskaya, 3-1-20 restored good crown. Their trees state was estimated as 3.6–5.0 points. Vars. Radonezh, Kisilovaya, Amasonka, Spanka bryanskaya have the satisfactory condition to the end of vegetation (3.0–3.2 points). Among the varieties with strong branches drying donetskiy var. Tchhudo vishnya and Novinka have well restored. Flower buds are well preserved but in spite of this cherry bear poor.
Vars. Zastentchivaya, Soyusnaya, Igritskaya, Spanka bryanskaya, 2-12-11, Bryanskii talisman, 3-1-20 have the highest yield.
1. Ishchenko L.A. (1994): Genetics of fruit plant resistance as an ecological problem. In: Genetics and inheritance of the most important economically valuable traits of fruit plants. Michurinsk : 19-23. (In Russian). 2. Ishchenko L.A., Maslova M.V. (2008): Cherry culture in conditions of abiotic and biotic stresses. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 20: 104-111. (In Russian). 3. Kanshina M.V. (1998): Ecological resistance and productivity of cherry cultivars in Bryansk region. In: Abstr. Conf. The improvement of assortment and cultivation technology of stone fruit crops, Jul 14-17, 1998, Orel, VNIISPK: 82-84. (In Russian). 4. Kanshina M.V. (1999): Why does not cherry bear fruit. Orchard and garden, 6: 25-26. (In Russian). 5. Kanshina M.V. Astakhov A.A. (2008): Adaptability of sour and sweet cherry cultivars in conditions of Bryansk region. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 20: 120-123. (In Russian). 6. Dzhigadlo E.N., Kolesnikova A.F., Eremin G.V., Morozova T.V., Debiskaeva S.Yu., Kanshina M.V., Medvedeva N.I., Simagin V.S. (1999): Stone fruit crops. In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIISPK, Orel: 300-351. (In Russian). 7. Khaustovich I.P., Kuminov E.P., Zhidekhina T.V., Morozova T.V., Popov M.A., Shcherbenev G.Ya., Koveshnikova E.Yu., Popov A.S. (1999): The influence of the climate change on winter hardiness and drought resistance of fruit and berry crops, signs of a resistant variety and agrocoenosis of the orchard. In: Proc. Conf. Scientific principles of resistant horticulture in Russia. Michurinsk: 46-50. (In Russian).
Sidorova I.A., Salina E.S., Levgerova N.S. (2016): Ñalcium content in fruit of different apple varieties as a technological index of raw material for processing. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 27-32. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/34.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
The behaviour of calcium content in apples and its influence on the juice output is studied. Eleven apple varieties from the VNIISPK breeding program have been studied. Antonovka Obyknovennaya served as a control. In 2013 the juice output as well as the content of calcium were lower than in 2012. The lowest calcium content have been characterized by a control Antonovka Obyknovennaya
(5.9–6.7 mg/100g) and Svezhest (5.2–6.7 mg/100g) during the years of the study. The highest calcium content have been characterized by varieties Zarianka, Imrus and Pamiaty Khitrovo (till the 10.5 mg/100g). It is shown that the calcium content in fruit is an index that depends upon the weather conditions as well as varietal features. This influence on the juice output is different for different varieties. Juice output decreases with increasing calcium content in the fruits of the varieties Rozhdestvenskoye, Venyaminovskoe, Imrus and it increases in the fruits of the varieties Svezhest, Kandil Orlowski, Yubilar, Bolotovskoye.
1. Veshchugin S.V. (2008): Varietal features of apple fruit quality formation in orchard for storage under conditions of Nizhneye Povolzhie. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Diss. Thesis]. Michurinsk, Michurinsk State Agrarian University. (In Russian). 2. Daskalov P., Aslanyan R., Tenov R., Zhivkov M., Bayadzhiev R. (1969): Fruit and vegetable juice. Moscow, Pishchevaya promyshlennost. (In Russian). 3. Ermakov A.I., Arasimovich V.V., Yarosh N.P., Peruanskii Yu.V., Lukovnikova G.A., Ikonnikova M.I. (1978): Methods of biochemical research of plants. A.I. Ermakov (ed.). Agropromizdat, Leningrad. (In Russian). 4. Metlitskiy L.V. (1976): Principles of fruit and vegetable biochemistry. Moscow, Economika. (In Russian). 5. Practice work on agrochemistry (2001): V.G. Mineyev (ed.). Moscow, MGU. (In Russian). 6. Prichko T.G., Chalaya L.D., Karpushina M.V. (2011): Change in the quality indicators of apple fruit in the process of growing and storage. Fruit growing and viticulture of South Russia, 7(1). Available at: http://journal.kubansad.ru/pdf/11/01/02.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract). 7. Pugachev G.N. (2004): The content and activity of potassium in orchards on dwarf clone apple rootstocks on Chernozem soils. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Voronezh, K.D. Glinka Voronezh State Agrarian University. (In Russian). 8. Trunov I.A., Pugachyov G.N., Zakharov V.L. (2005): The Influence of Weather Conditions on Calcium Content of the Apple-Tree Leaves and Fruits. Problems of Contemporary Science and Practice. Vernadsky University, 1: 31-34. (In Russian, English abstract). 9. Flaumenbaum B.L., Tanchev S.S., Grishin M.A. (1986): Food Canning Basics. Moscow, Agropromizdat. (In Russian). 10. Shobinger U. (2004): Fruit and vegetable juice: Scientific principles and technologies. Saint Petersburg, Professya. (In Russian). 11. Lanauskas J., Kvikliene N. (2006): Effect of calcium foliar application on some fruit quality characteristics of ‘Sinap Orlovskij’ apple. Agronomy Research, 4(1): 31-36. 12. Raese J.T., Staiff D.C., (1990): Fruit calcium, quality and disorders of apples (Malus domestica) and pears (Pyrus communis) influenced by fertilizers. In: M.L. van Beusichem, (ed.) Plant Nutrition - Physiology and Applications: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Plant Nutrition Colloquium, 30 July-4 August 1989, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 41: 619–623. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-009-0585-6_104.
NURSERY AND AN AGROTECHNICS OF FRUIT CROPS
Gruner L.A., Kuleshova O.V. (2016): The influence of TUR retardant (chlorcholinchlorid) on the morphometric indices of blackberry canes and its potential productivity. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 33-37. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/35.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
The influence of TUR retardant on the level of branching of annual canes, length of lateral offshoots and length of internodes in the middle part of blackberry canes was studied. The treatment with 0.1% retardant solution was made three times during the period of the most intensive growth of canes of three types of blackberry: erect (‘Erie’), trailing (‘Thornfree’) and semi-erect (seedling of ‘Black Satin’). Measures were carried out during the growth completing (August). The preparation had the greatest effect upon the density of node location in the middle part of shoots (and therefore upon the potential productivity) in trailing and semi-erect blackberry types with actively growing shoots. During the both years of study the average length of lateral shoots under the TUR effect either positevely decreased, or had such tendency in all studied genotypes. The level of branching of annual shoots was different by years of study and did not show stable dependence on the retardant effect.
1. Agafonov N.V., Blinovskiy V.K. (1974): The results of five-year studies on TUR preparation application in the intensive fruit-growing. Doklady TSKhA, 201: 5-12. (In Russian). 2. Agafonov N.V., Kazakova V.N. (1984): Chlorcholinechloride aplication on fruit crops with thaw aim of regulation of growth, shoot formation and yield increase. Agricultural Biology, 10: 48-54. (In Russian). 3. Gruner L.A. (2014): Blackberries. In: Sedov E.N. Gruner L.A. (eds.) Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops, Vol. 5. Orel, VNIISPK: 300-308. (In Russian). 4. Gruner L. A., Kuleshova O. V. (2014): Vegetation length and dynamics of blackberry shoot growth in conditions of Orel region. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 42-49. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/4/56.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract). 5. Dospekhov B.A. (1973): Methods of the field experiment. Moscow, Kolos. (In Russian). 6. Marapov D. (2013): Online calculators to calculate the statistical criteria: Medical statistics. Available at: http://medstatistic.ru/calculators.html (Accessed August 3, 2016). (In Russian). 7. Radzhabov A.K. (2000): Formation of grape productivity and quality: agrotechnical, varietal and ecological features. [Agri. Sci. Doc. Thesis]. Moscow, Ya.N. Potapenko All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking. (In Russian). 8. Khaustovich I.P. (1984): Retardant effect on growth and fruit-bearing of apple trees in the Central Chernozem zone. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Michurinsk, I.V. Michurin horticultural institute. (In Russian). 9. Finn C.E, Strik B.C. (2014): Blackberry Cultivars for Oregon: Northwest Berry & Grape Information Network. Available at: http://berrygrape.org/files/caneberries/blackberry_ cultivars.pdf (Accessed August 3, 2016).
Petrova A.D., Upadyshev M.T., Metlitskaya K.V. (2016): Studying of optimum term of utilization apple-trees nuclear stock plantation. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 38-42. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/36.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
Long-term data on testing a basic apple-tree nursery are presented. During the first 10 years of operation the virus infection was absent, and only then a slow increase of the infection subsequently began. Visible symptoms of a virus infection were absent. The first cases of tree contamination were by viruses of apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV) and apple mosaic (ApMV). The contamination by virus ACLSV occurred faster than by the rest latent viruses. In 14 years of operation the virus of apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV) was found out in 27% of trees, the apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) – in 9.5%, ASPV - in 4.1% and ApMV – in 7.0%. 32% of trees were infected by complex infection. Till now active natural carriers of latent viruses have not been revealed, therefore, we assume, that the infection has occurred as a result of agrotechnical works.
It has been confirmed, that an admissible term of basic apple nursery operation makes 10 years. It is necessary to conduct annual retesting of basic plants with removing the infected trees as well as estimation of their phytosanitory condition in order to increase the term of nursery operation.
1. Verderevskaya T.D., Marinesku V.G. (1985): Virus and Mycoplasmal Diseases of Fruit Crops and Grape. Kishinev, Shtiniza. (In Russian). 2. Redin D.V. (1999): Latent viruses of apple in the Nechernozem zone of Russia and the improvement of protection meazures. [Agri. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Moscow, All-Russia Selection-Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. (In Russian). 3. Semina N.P. (2001): Problems of production of certified apple plant material in CChR. In: Proc. Sci. Int. Conf. Industrial production of healthy plant material of fruit, berry and flower-decorative cultures. Moscow, VSTISP: 88-97. (In Russian). 4. Upadyshev M.T. (2011): Virus diseases and modern methods of making healthy fruit and berry crops. [Agri. Sci. Doctoral Thesis]. Moscow, All-Russia Selection-Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. (In Russian). 5. Upadyshev M.T., Metlitskaya K.V. (2013): Diagnostics of latent viruses of pome cultures in the Moscow region. Scientific publications of FSBSO NCRRIH&V. 2: 75-78. (In Russian, English abstract). 6. Upadyshev M.T., Metlitskaya K.V., Donetskiy V.I., Borisova A.A., Selivanov V.G., Piskunov O.A., Yudina S.N. (2013): A Technology for producing virus-free planting material of fruit and berry crops: guidelines. Moscow, FGBNU «Rosinformagrotekh (In Russian). 7. Upadyshev M.T., Metlitskaya K.V., Petrova A.D. Prevalence of harmful viruses in plantation on pip cultures in Moscow district. In: Coll. Sci. Peapers Breeding and variety cultivation of fruit and berry crops. Orel, VNIISPK. 2: 215-217. (In Russian, English abstract). 8. Clark M.F., Adams A.N. (1977): Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. Journal of general virology, 34(3), 475-483. DOI: 10.1099/0022-1317-34-3-475 9. Clever M., Stehr R. (1996): Ergebnisse einer Leistungspruefung zwischen virusfreien und nicht virusfreien Kernobstsorten. Mitteilungen des Obstbauversuchsringes des Alten Landes. 51(6): 236-247. (In German). 10. Penrose L.J., Davis K.C., Valentine B.J. (1988): Comparative performance of three apple clones derived from a virus-tested scheme, with clones infected with latent viruses and a mycoplasma. Scientia horticulturae, 36(1), 55-65. DOI:10.1016/0304-4238(88)90007-6
Postolenko L.V. (2016): Influence mulching and irrigation of soil on population density by synanthedon tipuliformis and defeat of planting of black currant diseases. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 43-53. Available at: (In Russian, English abstract).
The results of black currant plantings damage by pests and diseases and the use of mulching materials and drip irrigation to hold the soil in bands are given. The assessment of black currant damage by powdery mildew, anthracnose and clearwing depending on the ways of keeping the soil is given.
As a result of studying the influence of mulching variants (agrofibre, film, sawdust, straw, pine needles) and irrigation on phytophages occupancy and damage by diseases, it was found that most lesions of powdery mildew were observed on irrigation in promising hybrid form ¹ 1060 (Pegas) in control: on the film, sawdust and straw – 20%, which was 5% less than the degree of destruction without irrigation, which could be explained by the fact that the plants were sufficiently provided with moisture and were more resistant to disease lesions.
High levels of anthracnose lesions were revealed in the summer with frequent rains in 2014 and 2015.
The intensity of anthracnose lesions on black currant plants without irrigation was 0–1% in 2010–2012, and 15–20% in 2013–2015. The intensity of anthracnose lesions on irrigated plants was 0–1% in 2010–2012 and 1–20% IN 2013–2015.
The black currant variety ‘Melodia’ in a control variant and the promising hybrid ¹ 1060 (Pegas) were mostly damaged – 20%.
1. Golyaeva O.D. (2004): Disease resistance study of red currant varieties of different genetic and geographic origin in conditions of Orel region. Fruit-growing, 15: 88-91. (In Russian). 2. Gradchenko S.I., Denisyuk A.F. (2008): Prediction models of manifestation and progression of Cronartium ribicola Dletr. on black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) relative to ecological and other factors. In: Proc. Sci. Peapers Horticulture, 66: 225-232. (In Russian). 3. Korovin K.L. (2011): Evaluation of black currant introduced varieties on economic traits. In: Proc. Int. Sci. Conf. The Role of Fruit Growing Industry in Ensuring Food Safety and Stable Economic Growth. RUE “Institute for Fruit Growing”, Samokhvalovichi, 60-64. (In Russian). 4. Kucher M.F. (2013): Resistance of samples of genepool of black currant against the exciters of diseases. Plant Genetic Resources, 12: 91-96. (In Ukrainian, English abstract). 5. Markovskii V.S., Bakhmat M.I. (2008): Berry crops in the Ukraine: Manual. Kamenets-Podolskii, P.P. «Medobory». (In Ukrainian). 6. Tribel S.A., Sigarev D.D., Sekun M.P., Ivashchenko A.A. [et al.]. (2001): Methods of testing and applying pesticides. S.A. Tribel (ed.). Moscow, Mir. (In Russian). 7. Dospekhov B. A. (1985): Methods of the field experiment (on the base of statistical processing of investigation results). Moscow, Agropromizdat. (In Russian). 8. Bakalova A.V. (2012): Biological peculiarities of currant clearwing moth (Aegeria (Synanthedon) tipuliformis Cl.) in black currant plantings in Polissia Region of Ukraine. Quarantine and Plant Protection, 3: 24-26. (In Ukrainian, Russian and English abstract). 9. Taranukho Yu.M. (2010): Viral diseases of black currants and raspberries in the forest steppe of Ukraine and obtaining healthy planting material. [Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Kiev, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. (In Ukrainian). 10. Ganzyuk N.A. (2010): Performance and quality of black currant in the application of plant protection from diseases. In: A.F. Golovchuk (ed.). Collection of scientific works of students of Uman National University of Horticulture Agricultural and Technical Sciences. Uman: 155-156. (In Ukrainian).
Emelyanova O.Yu. (2016): For method of complex assessment of woody plants decorativeness. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 54-74. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/38.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
To create harmonious landscape compositions we use plants with a specific complex of decorative qualities, which vary due to the age and seasonal development of plants. On the basis of published data and our own long-term observations (1999–2016) and taking into account the dynamics of decorative qualities, a universal method of complex assessment of woody plants decorativeness, scale of gradation characteristics and coefficients of the importance have been developed. The assessment is made on a monthly basis by six criteria on a 5-point scale. Based on the assessment charts are built, on which the degree of variability of decorativeness of species (varieties) throughout the year is clearly visible. Such graphs are conveniently used at drawing up of landscape groups for various purposes to ensure their decorative effect throughout the year or during a certain period. The summation of monthly assessments of the decorativeness degree gives the total annual assessment, which can be used when we compare the overall degree of decorativeness of species, forms or varieties with each other. To monitor the age variability of the degree of decorativeness of woody plants it is recommended to repeat the comprehensive assessment once every 5 years.
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Masalova L.I. (2016): Assessment and introduction prospects of some leaf-bearing North-American species. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 3: 75-81. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2016/3/39.pdf (In Russian, English abstract).
The comprehensive study of introduced woody plants for increase of diversity of species and their use in landscape building is an important function of arboretums. Currently in the arboretum of VNIISPK 288 species of wild plants are grown. North-American woody plants can be widely used not only at the locations of natural growing, but also in conditions of introduction. The evaluation of prospects of these species has a great significance for their wide distribution and introduction into the culture. From 2013 to 2015 the prospect of 8 species of North-American leaf-bearing trees and bushes grown in the VNIISPK arboretum was evaluated according to the modificated E.A. Kuchinskaya scale by means of determining the coefficient of prospect taking into account the winter hardiness, general condition of plants, resistance to diseases and pests, blooming and fruiting rate and decorativeness. The lack of fruitng, low resistance to pests and diseases and poor decorativeness influenced upon the reduce of prospects of individual species under our conditions. As a result of studies Ptelea trifoliata L, Juglans rupestris Engelm, Quercus rubra, Quercus macrocarpa Michx, Berberis ottawiensis f. purpurea Schneid. demonstrated the highest indices. Sorbus americana Marsch, Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharinum L. occurred to be less promising and required further study.
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