Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK) is an oldest pomological institution in Russia. In 2015 it celebrated its 170-year anniversary. Large-scale work for apple breeding was started in 1955. By now fifty apple cultivars of different maturing dated have been developed and included in the State Register. The Institute is an initiator of developing the first scab immune cultivars (Vf) in Russia. The first local scab immune cultivar “Imrus” (immune Russian) was passed to the state testing in 1981 and in 1996 it was included in the State Register. First in Russia and in the world the Institute developed a number of triploid cultivars obtained from crossings with different chromosomes 2x × 4x and 4x × 2x including triploid and scab immune cultivars. These cultivars are included in the State Register. Brief fruit characteristics of the best released apple cultivars of VNIISPK breeding are given in this paper. The cultivars are introduced in commercial orchards as well as amateur orchards. It is necessary to test new cultivars on the plots of commercial trials before their wide introduction into commercial orchards.
This article summarizes the long-term experimental studies on the breeding of new Apple cultivars Lydia during the years 1972…2005, the results of research on the site of the primary variety trials varieties Lydia in comparison with the best standard grade Ermolaeva 23. Using the method of geographically distant hybridization, breeders have created a winter-hardy Apple varieties with high potential productivity, the summer ripening period with fruit sour-sweet taste, for technical purposes. The fruits of the cultivar Lydia ripen 10 days earlier than most released in Buryatia Apple varieties. Grade Lydia has advantages over the standard grade Ermolaeva 23 in many respects. The new varieties higher the hardiness, heat resistance, yield and content in the fruits dry soluble solids, vitamin "C", vitamin "P". As a result of variety trials established that the Lydia variety is resistant to winter injury complex and enrolled in a group of winter-hardy varieties, suitable for cultivation in the Northern regions.
2. Batueva Yu.M. (2014): Winter features and winterhardiness estimation of apple varieties in Buryatia. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 4: 1-4. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/4/50.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
3. Novoselova I.A., Batueva Yu. M. (2003): The improvement of economical efficiency of apple cultivation in Buryatia. In: Scientific and economical problems of regional horticulture. Barnaul, 143-152. (In Russian).
4. Sedov E.N. Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.) (1999): Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIISPK, Orel. (In Russian).
Breeding for columnar apple varieties has been performed at the All Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK) since 1984. For a 30-year period eight columnar scab immune apple varieties have been developed, two of which have already been included in the State Register of breeding achievements admitted for use (regionalized) and another two are passing state trials. In 2015 Vostorg was ready for including in the State Register and Girlianda and Orlovskaya Yesenia were ready for passing state trials. Directions and volumes of breeding work for this traits are shown in the paper. Brief commercial and biological characteristics of the advanced columnar apple VNIISPK varieties are given (Vostorg, Poezia, Priokskoye, Girlianda, Orlovskaya Yesenia and Sozvezdie). Experimental data on the height and thickness of one-year columnar seedlings are given for more sufficient determination of planting space. The authors propose that owing to such favorable traits as scab immunity, precocity, productivity, and high marketable and taste qualities of fruit, the columnar apple VNIISPK varieties will take a worthy place not only in amateur and farm orchards but also in commercial orchards that will facilitate the improving of fruit production in the country.
2. Kichina V.V. (2006): Columnar apple trees. All about columnar type of apple trees. VSTISP, Moscow. (In Russian).
3. Sedov E.N. (ed.) (1995): Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. Orel, VNIISPK. (In Russian).
4. Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.) (1999): Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIISPK, Orel. (in Russian).
5. Sedov E.N., Korneeva S.A., Serova Z.M. (2013): Columnar apple trees in the intensive orchard. VNIISPK, Orel. (In Russian).
6. Sedov E.N., Serova Z.M., Korneeva S.A. (2014): Apple varieties of new generation of VNIISPK breeding. Sovremennoe sadovodstvo – Contemporary horticulture, 1: 1-9. Available at: http://journal.vniispk.ru/pdf/2014/1/1.pdf. (In Russian, English abstract).
7. Sedov E.N., Sedysheva G.A., Makarkina M.A., Levgerova N.S., Serova Z.M., Korneyeva S.A., Gorbacheva N.G., Salina E.S., Yanchuk T.V., Pikunova A.V., Ozherelieva Z.E. (2015): The innovations in apple genome modification opening new prospects in breeding. VNIISPK, Orel. (In Russian).
The results of study of commercial and biological characters of growth habit, fruit-bearing, winter hardiness and drought resistance of two new apple varieties developed at the VNIISPK are given. It was observed that during the winter period the trees of studied variety-rootstock combinations were not essentially damaged. Intercalary stock 3-17-38 exerted a significantly reducing influence on the tree growth habit.
More significant weakening of all growth habit indices was determined in variety-rootstock combinations with using 62-396 rootstock than in the combination with its using as an intercalary stock. During summer drought the quantity of the bound water that was responsible for resistance to unfavorable conditions excelled the available water.
2. Budagovskii V.I. (1976): Culture of low-sized fruit trees. Kolos, Moscow. (In Russian).
3. Guseva N.N., Gusev A.N. (1985): Intercalation using for obtaining dwarf apple trees. In: Coll. Proc. The questions of horticulture intensification in the Central-Chernozem zone. Voronezh Agricultural Institute, Voronezh: 3-8. (In Russian).
4. Kapichnikova N.G. (2013): Planting scheme influence on yield and economic indexes of variety and rootstock apple tree combinations. Fruit-growing, 25: 42-48. (In Russian).
5. Krasova N.G., Galasheva A.M. (2012): Productivity of apple varieties on low-sized rootstocks. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 29(1): 259-267. (In Russian).
6. Krasova N.G., Ozherelieva Z.E., Golyshkina L.V., Makarkina M.A., Galasheva A.M. (2014): Winter hardiness of apple cultivars. VNIISPK, Orel. (In Russian).
7. Leonovich I.S., Kostuchenko T.M., Kapichnikova N.G. (2008): Apple tree growth and fruiting on clonal stock insertions. Fruit-growing, 20: 63-69. (In Russian).
8. Ryabtseva T.V. (2008): Growth and fruiting dynamics of apple variety ‘antey’ on rootstocks of different growth vigor depending on crowning type of planting material. Fruit-growing, 20: 78-89. (In Russian).
9. Sedov E.N., Krasova N.G., Zhdanov V.V., Dolmatov E.A., Mozhar N.V. (1999): Pip crops (apple, pear, common quince). In: Sedov E.N. (ed.): Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. VNIISPK, Orel: 253-255. (In Russian).
10. Sedov E.N., Krasova N.G. (2000): Dwarf stocks as intercalation and new apple cultivars of VNIISPK breeding for intensive orchards. VNIISPK, Orel. (In Russian).
11. Sedov E.N., Krasova N.G., Muraviev A.A., Palii M.V., Serova Z.M. (2009): Intensive apple orchard on low-sized interstem rootstocks. VNIISPK, Orel. (In Russian).
12. Stepanov S.N. (1981): Highly winter hardy apple rootstocks for intensive orchards in the temperate zone of RSFSR. In: Proc. Conf. The ways of horticulture intensification. Michurin I.V. VNIIS, Michurinsk: 64-66. (In Russian).
13. Stepanychev V.I. (1985): The comparative productivity of apple grown on dwarf rootstock ¹134 and its insert. In: The intensification of fruit and berry cultivation. Leningrad Agricultural Institute, Leningrad: 79-82. (In Russian).
14. Tyurina M.M., Krasova N.G., Rezvyakova S.V., Saveliev N.I., Dzhigadlo E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (1999): Study of winter hardiness of fruit and berry cultivars under the field and laboratory conditions. In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.). Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. VNIISPK, Orel: 59-68. (In Russian).
In the soil-climatic conditions of the foothill zone of Republic Adygea, the characteristics of the productivity components in 30 varieties of pear of the East Asian group were studied. The estimation of early fruiting, average and maximum productivity, the regularity of fruiting for a 30-year period was held. The samples were identified that had extremely early beginning of fruiting, which came into fruition on the 2…3rd year: Vostochnaja Zolotistaja, Kitaiskaja 13, Peschanaja × Bere Ardanpon and E-tou-li. Highest yielding varieties were Druzba, Vostochnaja Zolotistaj and Maikopskaja Krasavitsa. The most regular fruiting observed in the cultivars Vostochnaja Zolotistaja, Druzba and Peschanaja × Bere Ardanpon. We studied the timing of maturation and the size of the fruit. Some large-fruited varieties Dan-shang-su-li, Pin Lee, Pictav, Kitaiskaja 13 (190…270 g) were selected
The selected varieties were recommended for growing in this region and used for breeding.
2. Bandurko I.A. (2007): Pear (Pyrus L.). Gene pool and its use in breeding. Maikop. (In Russian).
3. Saveliev N.I., Makarov V.N., Chivilev V.V., Akimov M.Yu. (2006): Pear. VNIIGiSPR, Michurinsk. (In Russian).
4. Nesterov Ye.S. et al. (eds.) (1989): CMEA International Classification of Maloideae subfamily (Genera Malus Mill., Pyrus L., Cydonia Mill), The Scientific and Technical Council of the CMEA countries on Collections of Wild and Cultural and Other Plant Species. VIR, Leningrad. (In Russian).
The characteristic of grades of plum of Far East selection and introduced on winter hardiness, productivity is presented to resistance to diseases in article, in the conditions of Primorsky Krai. By results of researches the grades which are most adapted for local conditions and also donors of resistance to the main mushroom diseases are allocated. For a skoroplodnost, high annual productivity grades of plum of selection of Seaside fruit and berry experimental station on the Far East region are zoned: Hope of Primorye, Spherical, Antonina.
2. Tsarenko V.P. (1979): The initial material for cherry breeding in the Far East In: Proc. Sci. Conf. devoted to the results of using world VIR collection in the development of agricultural production of the Far East. Vladivostok: 52-55. (In Russian).
3. Kazmin G.T. (1966): Far East plums: breeding, cultivar investigation, agrotechnics. Far Eastern Agricultural Research Institute, Khabarovsk. (In Russian).
4. Kalinina I.P., Puchkin I.A., Nazaryuk N.I. (1999): Fruit and berry cultivars for fruit-growers of Barnaul. In: Science – for Barnaul town. Barnaul: 223-224. (In Russian).
5. Kalinina I.P. (1996): The results and prospects of fruit and berry breeding in Altai. In: Scientific principles of Siberian horticulture. Novosibirsk: 3-14. (In Russian).
6. Tsarenko V.P. (1977): New initial material for plum breeding. In: Thesis of reports of Primorskaya sci. conf. devoted to the questions of the intensification of plant growing and livestock rearing. Ussuriisk: 10-12. (In Russian).
7. Sedov E.N. (ed.) (1995): Program and methods of fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. VNIISPK, Orel. (in Russian).
8. Dzhigadlo E.N., Kolesnikova A.F., Eremin G.V., Morozova T.V., Debiskaeva S.Yu., Kanshina M.V., Medvedeva N.I., Simagin V.S. (1999): Stone fruit crops. In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIISPK, Orel: 300-351. (in Russian).
The Caucasus nation of Azerbaijan is regarded as one of the centers of origin, diversity, and domestication for many Mediterranean–adapted fruit and nut species. Azerbaijan falls wising the home range of diversity and domestication of Juglans, Corylus, Castanea, Amygdalus, Pistacia, Olea, Punica, Ficus, Diospyros,Vitis and other species, where there is a long history of selection and cultivation of these crops. Early human migration and trade along the Silk Route linking China, Central Asia, and West Europa has contributed to the early spread of many of the fruit and nut species such as the ones mentioned above all along the famous route creating many secondary of centers of diversity for the crops. The long cultivation history and the predominant use of seeds in the cultivation of the crops should offer a wide range of variation for most traits within and between orchards grown in diverse agro ecological conditions. Due to Azerbaijan’s wide range of topographic and climatic conditions, the plant species have complex spatial and temporal diversity and adaptations to biotic and abiotic factors providing excellent sources of germplasm. Although Azerbaijan has taken steps to deal with this crisis by establishing protected areas for in situ conservation of plant diversity and ex situ collections in botanical gardens and gene banks, much need to be done to preserve the rich heritage of wild nut species diversity and germplasm for the future generations to come. There is an urgent need for exploration, collection, and conservation of Juglans regia, Corylus avellana, Pistacia mutica, Amygdalus fenzliana germplasm that are native to Azerbaijan before they are lost due to replacement with genetically uniform modern clone cultivars.
2. Gasanov Z.M. (1987): Nut crops. Kirovabad , Azerbaijani Agricultural Institute (In Azeri).
3. Hasanov Z.M., Mikeladze A.D., Kopaliani R.Sh., Suleymanova E.V. (2013): Subtropical crops. Publishing house "Sharq-Gharb", Baku: 130-173. (in Russian).
4. Grossgeim A.A. (1952): Vegetable wealth of the Caucasus. Moscow, Moscow Society of Naturalists. (In Russian).
5. Zhukovsky P.M. (1971): Cultivated plants and their relatives. Leningrad, Kolos. (In Russian)
6. Ibrahimov Z.A. (2010): Genetic centers of Juglans regia origin and world nuts production. Agrarian science, 7:17-20. (In Russian).
7. Ibrahimov Z.A. (2009): Phylogenetic of Persian Walnut – Juglans regia L. Agrarian Science of Azerbaijan, 5: 60-62. (In Russian).
8. Ibragimov Z.A., Ashrafov S.A., Alizade R.A. (2014): Wild ancestors of nut species: protection and stable use of gene pool. Proceedings of Ganja branch of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, 56: 24-29 (In Azeri).
9. Ibragimov Z.A. (2010): Molecular and genetic investigations of the biological diversity of Juglans regia L. in Azerbaijan. Horticulture and viticulture, 5:20-22 (In Russian).
10. Komanich I. G. (1980): Biology, cultivation and breeding of walnut. Kishinev, Shtiinsta. (In Russian).
11. Kuliev A.I. (1968): Persian Walnut Spreading in Azerbaijan. In: Works AzerbNIILXA, 8: 63-70 (in Russian).
12. Medvedev Ya.S. (1883): Trees and Shrubs of the Caucasus. Tiflis: 236-243. (In Russian
13. Medvedev Ya.S. (1915): Vegetation of the Caucasus. Proceedings of the Tiflis Botanical Garden, 18: 117-126. (In Russian).
14. Radzhabli A.D. (1936): Culture of tea, subtropical fruit and nut species in Azerbaijan SSR. VASKhNIL , Moscow.
15. Safarov I.S. (1981): Platanus orientalis and Juglans regia and their Value in Gardening and Forestations . Baku, Azerneshr. (in Russian).
16. Forde G.I. (1981): Walnuts. In: Fruit Breeding . Moscow, Kolos: 596-604. (In Russian).
17. Ibrahimov Z.A., Mc Granahan G.H., Leslie C.A., Aradhya, M. (2010): Genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia) from the caucasus nation of Azerbaijan. Acta Hortic. 861: 163-170. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.861.21
18. Ibrahimov Z.A. (2010): Persian walnut origin and spreading on Caucasus //Z.A. Ibra¬himov. Annals of agrarian science, 8(3): 79-81.
19. Red Book of the Republic of Azerbaijan (2013): Rare and Endangered Plant and Mushroom Species. Baku. (In Azeri).
This article presents the results of studies of selected forms of chokeberry isolated from hybrid fund. Selected forms were identified by the initial assessment of the hybrid fund chokeberry created by sowing seeds taken from fruit, strike up from open pollination varieties of aronia black-eyed. It has been allocated a few choice forms the superior class indicated on a number of signs (weight of fruit, taste and yield), this form ¹1, ¹2, ¹3 and ¹4. To select the best of them, and its recommendations for transmission of a series of experiments was conducted in the elite of us, including the assessment of the quality of fruits, morphostructural productivity components, yield and selfproductivity.
The studies were conducted from 2009 to 2015. In FGBNU VNIIS them. IV Michurina in accordance with the Program and the method Cultivar fruit, berry and nut crops, 1999, they included the study of fruit quality, productivity and terms of components selfproductivity. As a result, it marked the most valuable forms of chokeberry for economically valuable traits. As a result of evaluation of the quality of fruits chokeberry best results were observed in the form ¹2. At harvest 100 flowers in isolation also reported of the best results in the form ¹2 (106.4 g), the same form was better in terms of the total fruit set in the conditions of open pollination (92.8% vs. 78,9 in control conditions).
As a result, a comprehensive assessment of selected forms of chokeberry succeeded in isolating the form ¹2 is characterized by high levels of performance of agronomic traits, in 2013 it was transferred to the elite and will continue to be transmitted to the ICG, tentatively called Mulatto.
2. Burmistrov A.N., Nikitina V.A. (1990): Melliferous plants and their pollen: reference book. Rosagropromizdat, Moscow. (In Russian).
3. Khromov N.V. (2014): Commercial and biological evaluation of Aronia Melanocarpa hybrids collected at I.V. Michurin Research Institute for Horticulture. In: Proc. Intern. Sci. Met. Conf. Technology of fruit production and storage in the middle zone of Russia. VNIIS, Michurinsk: 148-151. (In Russian).
Winter hardiness of root system of VNIISPK common quince was studied by artificial freezing method. The results are presented.
Root systems of 6 quince genotypes and pear seedlings were frozen under 12°C below zero.
It was determined that the quince genotypes had various damages under artificial freezing. Thus, 32A-1-29 (point 3.63), 32A-1-26 (point 4.46), 32A-1-30 (point 4.21), 32A-1-35 (point 4.25) and quince seedlings (point 4.46) insignificantly differed from pear seedlings (point 4). At the same time 32A-1-24 (point 3.25) was really less damaged than pear seedlings. The greatest degree of root damage was observed in 32A-1-9 (point 4.63). It was noted that the quince genotypes possessed high regeneration ability – new roots were formed in a root neck zone and on skeleton roots.
2. Vekhov Yu.K., Doroshenko T.N. (1999): Study of rootstocks and variety-rootstock combinations. In: Sedov E.N. Ogoltsova T.P. (eds.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. Orel, VNIISPK: 34-47. (in Russian).
3. Shitt P.G. (1958): Growth and development of fruit and berry plants. Moscow. (In Russian).
2. Gruner L.A. (1993): The classificatory of Rubus L. genus, Eubatus Focke subgenus N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry, Saint Petersburg. (In Russian).
3. Gruner L.A. (2014): Blackberries. In: Sedov E.N. Gruner L.A. (ed.) Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops, Vol. 5. VNIISPK, Orel, 300-308. (in Russian).
4. Kupriyanova L.A., Aleshina L.A. (1978): Pollen dicotyledons flora of the European part of the USSR. Nauka, Leningrad. (In Russian).
5. Tsatsenko L.V., Sinelnikova A.S. (2012): Pollen analysis in plant breeding. Scientific Journal of KubSAU, 77(3). Available at: http://ej.kubagro.ru/2012/03/pdf/09.pdf. (In Russian).
6. Erdtman G. (1956): Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy: Angiosperms. Inostrannaya literatura, Moscow. (In Russian).
7. Yuzepchuk S.V. (1941): Raspberries and blackberries. In: Flora of the USSR. Akademiya nauk SSSR, Leningrad, Moscow, 8: 21-58. (In Russian).
8. PalDat – Palinological Database https://www.paldat.org/search/genus/Rubus.
During four years (2011-2014) six new quince selections 32A-1-9, 32À-1-24, 32À-1-26, 32À-1-29 , 32À-1-30 and 32À-1-35 used as clone pear rootstocks were studied for ability to be propagated by soft cuttings. The results are given in this paper.
Essential differences in rooting were observed. The percent of rooting varied within 66.0% (32A-1-35) and 88.8% (32A-1-9). Three selections with high ability to root by soft cuttings were revealed: 32À-1-9(88,8 %), 32À-1-26 (81%) è 32À-1-29 (81,4%).
2. Polikarpova F.Ya. (1990): Fruit and berry crop propagation by soft cuttings. 2-d edition. Agropromizdat, Moscow. (In Russian).
3. Trusevich G. V. (1964): Rootstocks of fruit species. Kolos, Moscow. (In Russian).
4. Tarasenko M.T., Ermakov B.S., Prokhorova Z.A., Faustov V.V. (1968): New technology of plant propagation by soft cuttings. Methodical manual. Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow: 10-22. (In Russian).
Proliferation features of various strawberry cultivars in vitro depending on the concentration of cytokinin of 6-benzilaminopurine are shown. It was determined that cultivars “Alfa” and “Solovushka” had a high propagation coefficient under 0.4 mg/litre of 6-benzilaminopurine content. For “Tzaritza” and “Florens” the 0.8 mg/litre concentration was optimal. Under 0.2 mg/litre content of 6-benzilaminopurine in the nutrient medium a large number of plants suitable for rooting was formed.
2. Vysotskiy V.A. (2011): Biotechnological methods in up-to-date gardening. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 26: 3-10. (In Russian).
3. Dzhigadlo E.N., Dzhigadlo M.I., Golyshkina L.V. (2005): Methodical recommendations for using biotechnological methods in work with fruit, berry and ornamental crops. VNIISPK, Orel. (In Russian).
4. Muratova S.A., Yankovskaya M.B., Solovykh N.V., Shornikov D.G., Budagovskii A.V., Papikhin R.V. (2011): The optimization of methods of clonal micropropagation of orchard crops. Pomiculture and small fruits culture in Russia, 26: 375-382. (In Russian).
5. Semenas S.E., Kukharchik N.V. (2000): The optimization of methods of clonal micropropagation of orchard crops. Fruit-growing, 13: 138-145. (In Russian).
6. Shevelukha V.S. (Ed.) (2003): Agricultural biotechnology: Teaching aid. Vysshaya shkola, Moscow. (In Russian).
In the North-Western Caucasus a comprehensive study of 25 pear species, represented in the collection filial of Maikop experimental station of VIR was carry out. Some morphological characteristics of trees, leaves, flowers and fruit interesting for ornamental gardening were study. The species were grouping by the tree size, the time of flowering. For use in decorative purposes in the southern area of Russia, some Eastern species – P. betulifolia, P. calleryana, P. pyrifolia and Western species – P. salicifolia, P. elaeagnifolia, P. nivalis were selected.
The brief characteristics of selected samples and recommendations for their use are presented.
2. Nesterov Ye.S. et al. (eds.) (1989): CMEA International Classification of Maloideae subfamily (Genera Malus Mill., Pyrus L., Cydonia Mill), The Scientific and Technical Council of the CMEA countries on Collections of Wild and Cultural and Other Plant Species. VIR, Leningrad. (In Russian).
3. Vitkovskii V.L., Pavlova N.M. (1970): Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry, subtropical, nut and vine crops. VIR, Leningrad. (In Russian).
4. Tuz A.S. (1983): Pyrus L. – Pear. In: Likhonos F.D., Tuz A.S., Lobachev A.Y. (eds.) Cultivated flora of the USSR. Pome fruit trees . Kolos, Moscow, 14: 154-155. (In Russian).
The aim of this work was a maximally perfect and objective characteristic of aesthetic qualities of apple and fruit genotypes according to the scale modified by authors. The scale initially suggested by Nigmatyanova S.E. was taken as a basic one. This methodology provides the estimation of each ornamental trait with a certain number of points. As a result, the total estimation point is given. Our additions to the scale of estimations touches the following indices: crown shape, total ornamentality of the foliage, presence of anthocyans color of leaves, dates of blooming, length of blooming, blooming intensity, size of separate flowers, their fragrance, flower and leaf coloring contrast, fruiting length, ornamentality of fruit, leaf and fruit coloring contrast.
With the use of this methodology 22 ornamental apple and 6 pear genotypes were estimated for the most important aesthetic qualities by points. The most ornamental proved to be 7 apple genotypes and 1 pear genotype (from 24 to 30 points); moderately ornamental proved to be 12 apple genotypes and 1 pear genotype (from 20 to 23 points); 3 apple genotypes and 4 pear genotypes got the lowest marks (from 5 to 17 points). The descriptions of some aesthetic qualities that are important for greenbelt setting are given.
2. Dubovitskaya O.Yu., Zolotareva E.V. (2010): Flowering trees and shrubs for landscaping of low-rise building. Vestnik OrelGAU, 2: 72-77. (In Russian).
3. Eremin G.V., Gasanov A.S (2012): New varieties of ornamental stone fruit plants, Dompechati, Chelyabinsk. (In Russian).
4. Barsukova O.N. (ed.) (2007): World VIR collection catalogue. Volume ¹ 781. Malus Mill. species, varieties and forms. Immunological characteristic. VIR, Saint Petersburg. (In Russian).
5. Kachalkin M. V. (2013): Apple of the 21 century. 8th ed. Moscow. (In Russian).
6. Nigmatyanova S.E. (2012): Biomorphological features of promising apple species and cultivars for green belt setting on the example of steppe and forest-steppe zones of the Southern Urals. [Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis] Orenburg State University, Orenburg: 118-136. (In Russian).
7. Sedov E.N., Dolmatov E.A. (1997): Pear breeding. VNIISPK, Orel. (In Russian).
8. Solomatin N.M., Solomatina E.A., Ivanova E.V. (2012): Apple-tree selection on decorative qualities in the conditions of the Tambov region. Belgorod State University Scientific Bulletin. Natural sciences, 21(1): 68-72 (In Russian).