This publication briefly describes features of the most severe winters. Data on winter hardiness of local apple varieties are given. It has been observed that annual and perennial apple wood freezes in the most severe winters, there is physiological crown desiccation and frost-cracks appear. The generative buds of Buryat apple varieties have high winter hardiness and regenerative ability providing annual fruit-bearing. Podarok BAMu and Lydia are the most winter-hardy varieties.
2. Dubrovskaya L.I. (1959): Apple in Buryat ASSR. Sad i ogorod [Orchard and Vegetable Garden], 10: 38-42. (in Russian).
3. Dubrovskaya L.I. (1965, 1967): Scientific reports on apple breeding and variety investigation. Ulan-Ude
4. Dubrovskaya L.I. (1973): Apple variety investigation and breeding at Buryat Fruit and Berry Station. In: Horticulture of East Siberia. Krasnoyarsk, 21-30. (in Russian).5. Novoselova I.A., Batueva Yu. M. (2003): The improvement of economical efficiency of apple cultivation in Buryatia. In: Scientific and economical problems of regional horticulture. Barnaul, 143-152. (in Russian).
Apple cultivars with the best biochemical composition have been singled out as a result of a long-term study of 55 apple cultivars of the VNIISPK breeding. The characteristics of the cultivars are given on the content of soluble dry substances, sum of sugars, organic (titrate) acids, ascorbic acid, phenol compounds and sugar-acid index. According to the accumulation of soluble dry substances (over 13%) and sum of sugars (over 10,5%) the following cultivars have been noted: Blagodat’, Bordovoye, Veniaminovskoye, Viatich, Dariona, Ivanovskoye, Kurnakovskoye, Nizkorosloye, Olimpiyskoye, Orlik, Orlovskoaya Zaria, Pamyat’ Voinu, Spasskoye, Start, Stroevskoye and Utrennya Zvezda. Candil’ Orlovsky, Kurnakovskoye, Rozhdestvenskoye, Orlovsky Pioner, Zdorovie, Pamyati Khitrovo, Bolotovskoye and Slavianin have been noted in pectin accumulation (over 12,0% per dry mass); in ascorbic acid (over 19 mg/100 g) – Veteran, Vita, Ivanovskoye; in P-active catechins (over 200 mg/100 g) – Viatich, Zarianka, Imrus, Candil’ Orlovsky, Orlovsky Pioner, Pamiat’ Semakinu, Utrennya Zvezda and Chistotel. These cultivars are of interest as sources for use in further breeding for improved biochemical composition of fruit.
1. Methods of biochemical research of plants (1987): Ermakov A.I. et al. (ed.). Agropromizdat, Leningrad.
2. Complex program on pip crop breeding in Russia for 2001…2020 (2001): VNIISPK, Orel.
3. Sedov E.N., Kalinina I.P., Smykov V.K. (1995): Apple breeding. In: Sedov E.N. (ed.) Program and methods fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. VNIISPK, Orel, 159-200. (in Russian).
4. Studying of a chemical composition and technological properties of fruit and berries (1973): In: Lobanov G.A. (ed.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIIS, Michurinsk, 251-290. (in Russian).
5. Sedova Z.A., Leonchenko V.G., Astakhov A.I. (1999): Cultivar assessment on biochemical composition of fruits. In: Sedov E.N., Ogol‘tsova T.P. (ed.): Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIISPK, Orel, 160-167. (in Russian).
6. Sedov E.N., Makarkina M.A., Levgerova N.S. (2007): Biochemical and technological characteristics of apple fruit. VNIISPK, Orel.
The infection of a range of ornamental apple and pear varieties by basic diseases were estimated under climate conditions in 2013 and 2014 in Orel district. Among studied apple genotypes there were singled out 12 varieties mostly resistant to Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint., 13 – to Phyllosticta mali Pr. et Del. and 8 – to Sphaeropsis malorum Peck. Three pear selections showed high resistance to Gymnosporangium Sabinae (Dicks.), four selections were resistant to Coryneum follicola Fuck. and six pear selections demonstrated resistance to Septoria piricola Desm. Two apple selections showed a combined resistance to Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint., Phyllosticta mali Pr. et Del. and Sphaeropsis malorum Peck. Two pear selections demonstrated a combined resistance to Gymnosporangium Sabinae (Dicks.), Coryneum follicola Fuck. and Septoria piricola Desm. Ten apple selections and two pear selections had a combined resistance to two pathogens. The selected genotypes can serve as sources of resistance to diseases in breeding and can be used in ecologically safe landscapes of the region. A noticeable effect of spring and summer meteorological conditions during the studied years on a degree of pathogen infection of ornamental selections was observed.
1. Bandurko I.A., Semenova L.G., Titova L.C. (2001): Approach to the question of pear resistance to a number of fungal diseases in the Adygei Republic. In: Proc. Conf., Maikop, 12-13. (in Russian).
2. Barsukova O.N., Tuz A.S. (1981): Scab resistance of pear species and cultivars. Mikologiia i fitopatologiia [Mycology and Plant Pathology], 15(3): 223-229. (in Russian).
3. Dementeva M.I. (1962): Fruit crop diseases. Selkhozizdat, Moscow. (in Russian).
4. Dobrozrakova T.L. (1974): Agricultural phytopathology. Kolos, Leningrad. (in Russian).
5. Popova M.P., Soboleva V.P. (1951): Pests and diseases of fruit and berry crops. Gosudarstvennoe izdatelstvo selskokhoziaistvennoi literatury, Moscow. (in Russian).
6. Zhdanov V.V. (1999): Pest and disease resistance investigation relative to the adaptation to the environment In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (ed.): Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIISPK, Orel, 102-113. (in Russian).
7. Savkovskii P.P. (1976): Atlas of fruit and berry pests. Urozhai, Krasnodar. (in Russian).
8. Sedov E.N. (2011): Breeding and new apple cultivars. VNIISPK, Orel, 166-192. (in Russian).
9. Treivas L.Yu. (2007): We protect a fruit orchard from diseases and pests. CJSC “Fiton+”, Moscow. (in Russian).
The results of the primary research of 9 gooseberry hybrids are presented. The sources of high levels of economically useful traits have been revealed for the fur ther use in breeding:
- high winter hardiness – 94-2-2, 91-1-10, 91-1-14, 4-16, 02-3-120, 3-58;
- weak prickly shoots – 94-2-2, 2-51;
- early ripening – 4-16, 02-3-120;
- late ripening – 91-1-10, 91-1-14;
- resistance to American powdery mildew – 02-3-120, 91-1-10, 91-1-14;
- productivity – 02-3-120, 4-16;
- large fruits – 02-3-120.
- improved chemical composition (a high content of soluble solids, sugars, pectin substances, phenolic compounds) – 91-1-10, 91-1-14.
02-3-120 hybrid has been isolated with a complex of trials, it is characterized by early ripening, high winter hardiness, yield (10 t/ha), large fruits (average berryweight 4,2 g), relative resistance to the American powdery mildew, suitability for machine harvesting. In 2013 a hybrid 02-3-120 called Kryzhachok was transferred to the State Cultivar Trial
1. Sergeeva K.D. (1975): Breeding of powdery mildew resistant and thornless varieties of gooseberries In: Coll. Proc. VNIIS them. I. V. Michurina. Michurinsk, 89-94. (in Russian).
2. Andrushkevich T.M., Matveev V.A. (2013): Inheritance of bush height trait in hybrid gooseberry breed. News of Nat. Acad. of Sciences of Belarus. Ser. agric. sciences, 3: 45-51. (in Russian).
3. The current state of crop currants and gooseberries (2007): Trunov Yu.V (ed.). VNIIS them. I. V. Michurina. Michurinsk. (in Russian).
4. Ilyin V.S. (2001): The results of the breeding of gooseberry in Russia In: Coll. Proc. Breeding. Biology. Farming equipment fruit-berries crops and potatoes Vol. 5. ChGAU, Chelyabinsk, 43-56. (in Russian).
5. Popova I.V. (2007): Breeding of gooseberry in Moscow In: The current state of crop currants and gooseberries: coll. scient. pap. VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina, Michurinsk, 132-141. (in Russian).
6. Ilyin V.S. (2007): The results of years of research on the breeding of currants and gooseberries in the Southern Urals In: The current state of crop currants and gooseberries: coll. scient. pap. VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina, Michurinsk, 66-80. (in Russian).
7. Koveshnikova E.Y. (2001): Results and prospects of research with gooseberries in VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina. In: Main results and perspectives of research VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina (1931-2001): coll. scient. pap. Publishing house TGTU, Tambov, 58-65. (in Russian).
8. Koveshnikova E.Y. (2001): Prospects for industrial production of fruits gooseberry. Horticulture and viticulture, 3: 24-27. (in Russian).
9. Koveshnikova E.Y. (2004): Biological features gooseberry varieties due to mechanized harvesting. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo rossii [Fruit and berry-culture of Russia], 11: 411-420. (in Russian).
10. Knyazev S.D., Bayanova L.V. (1999): Currants, gooseberries and their hybrids. In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (ed.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut cropsþ VNIISPK, Orel, 351-373. (in Russian).
11. Study of the stability of fruit, berry and ornamental crops to diseases: method. decree (1972): VIR them. N.I. Vavilov, Leningrad, 70-75. (in Russian).
12. Wide unified classifier kind Grossularia (Tourn) Mill. Gooseberry. (1994): VIR them. N.I. Vavilov, St.-Petersburg. (in Russian).13. Technological requirements for varieties of vegetable and fruit crops destined for canning: recommendations (1986): Agropromizdat, Moscow. (in Russian).
The systematic hybridization with the use of target gooseberry crossings with Grossularia robusta has been carried out at the All Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding since 2001. The investigations and observations performed over the remote hybrids showed that Grossularia robusta and its progeny favour the development of gooseberry varieties with high environmental resistance to biotic and abiotic factors.
1. Popova I.V. (1985): Goosberries. Agropromizdat, Moscow. (in Russian).
2. Practical work on plant physiology (1990): Tretyakov N.N., Karnaukhova T.V., Panichkin L.A. (ed.). Agropromizdat, Moscow. (in Russian).
3. Popova I.V., Sergeeva K.D. (1995): Gooseberry breeding. In: Sedov E.N. (ed.) Program and methods fruit, berry and nut crop breeding. VNIISPK, Orel, 355-367. (in Russian).
4. Knyazev S.D., Bayanova L.V. (1999): Currants, gooseberries and their hybrids. In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (ed.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut cropsþ VNIISPK, Orel, 351-373. (in Russian).
5. Sergeeva K.D. (1989): Goosberries. Agropromizdat, Moscow. (in Russian).
6. Tyurina M.M. (1978): Rapid estimation of fruit and berry crop winter hardiness. VASKhNIL, Miscow. (in Russian).
This publication a morphological description, economic and biological characteristics of a new Belarusian gooseberry cultivar “Kryzhachok”, developed in the RUE «Institute for Fruit Growing» (Belarus) from the free pollination of the cultivar «Carpaty».
Cultivar “Kryzhachok” is characterized by early ripening, high winter hardiness, high productivity (10 t/ha – average productivity for the research years), high marketable qualitiesof berries (fresh berries tasting score of 4,4, an average weight of 4,2 g). The new cultivar is suitable for freezing fresh berries and for freezing berries in syrup, for making juice, stewed fruit, nectar with pulp and pulp-free nectar, and berries mashed with sugar. It is relatively resistant to American powdery mildew, suitable for machine harvesting. The level of profitability of the new variety is 191,8 %, the payback period is 2,9 harvests.
This cultivar was transferred to the State Cultivar Trial of the Republic of Belarus in 2013.
1. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/default.aspx#ancor. – (accessed November 29, 2013).
2. Nosecka B. (2008): The situation on the Polish market berry fruit and forecasts for the coming years. In: Proc. Nat. Conf. Innovations in the cultivation of berry bushes. Instytut Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa, Skierniewice, 5-18. (in Polish).
3. Dynamics of gooseberry exports from Poland. Available at http://polpred.com/?ns=1&ns_id=245800 (accessed March 12, 2013). (in Russian).
4. Yakimenko O.F., Novopokrovskiy V.S. (1988): Evaluation and selection of black currant varieties for machine harvest: the method. recommendations. VNIIS them. I. V. Michurina. Michurinsk. (in Russian).
5. Koveshnikova E.Y. (2001): Prospects for industrial production of fruits gooseberry. Horticulture and viticulture, 3: 24-27. (in Russian).
6. Koveshnikova E.Y. (2004): Biological features gooseberry varieties due to mechanized harvesting. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo rossii [Fruit and berry-culture of Russia], 11: 411-420. (in Russian).
7. Gwozdecki J., Kozinski B. (2008): New varieties of currants and gooseberries. In: Proc. Nat. Conf. Innovations in the cultivation of berry bushes. Instytut Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa, Skierniewice, 34-39. (in Polish).
8. Radziewicz J. (2010): Cultivation of gooseberries in Poland. Rolniczy magazyn elektroniczny, 39: Available at http://www.cbr.edu.pl/rme-archiwum/2010/rme39/dane/7_2.html (accessed December 3, 2013). (in Polish).
9. Cultivation recommendations for fruit growing in Baden: issue 2011/2012. (2010): Available at: https://www.yumpu.com/de/document/view/5438746/anbauempfehlungen-fur-den-obstbau-in-baden. (accessed December 3, 2013). (in German).
10. Knyazev S.D., Bayanova L.V. (1999): Currants, gooseberries and their hybrids. In: Sedov E.N., Ogoltsova T.P. (ed.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut cropsþ VNIISPK, Orel, 351-373. (in Russian).11. Khokhriakova T.M., Nikitina K.V., Minkevich I.I. (1972): Study of the stability of fruit, berry and ornamental crops to diseases: method. decree. N.I. VavilivVIR, Leningrad, 70-75. (in Russian).
The dynamics of blackberry shoot growth of the current year was studied in the conditions of Orel region of Russia in 2013…2014. The objects of study were blackberry varieties and selections with erect shoots (Agawam, Erie), trailing shoots (Thornfree) and semi-trailing shoots (seedling of Black Satin cultivar). Dates of the vegetation beginning and shoot appearing above the soil at the beginning of growth were recorded. Shoot increments were started to be gauged when they reached the length of 40…50 sm and then their length was measured once a decade. Shoot increments were compared with sums of average daily temperatures and precipitations for the periods between the dates of shoot measuring.As a result it was determined that in the cultivars with erect shoots (Agawam and Erie) the most intensive growth was observed in May – June, then it went out slowly and fully stopped in middle August in conditions of Orel region. In Thornfree with trailing shoots the intensive growth continued during the whole season – up to the middle of September, then shoot tips tightened and formed reduced leaves. From that very time the shoots were ready for rooting. In the seedling of Black Satin cultivar with semi-trailing shoots the intensive growth was observed from early May till early August and at that time it was similar to the growth habit of crawling shoots, then the growth went out slowly and stopped by the middle of September when the tops of a part of shoots were ready for rooting. The size of shoot increments of studied morphological groups of blackberry in the period of the most intensive growth (and before the beginning of top shoot rooting in cultivars with trailing shoots) were determined by points of the average daily temperatures: each wave of the increment was caused by the same wave of the sum of average daily temperatures. The length of the blackberry vegetation period (from the beginning of the vegetation to the beginning of leaf fall) was about 180 days that blended with the vegetative period of Orel region
1. Gruner L.A. (2014): Blackberries. In: Sedov E.N. Gruner L.A. (ed.) Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops, Vol. 5. VNIISPK, Orel, 300-308. (in Russian).
2. Gruner L.A. (1992): Biology features and economic value blackberry cultivars and selections in conditions of the North Caucasus. [Agr. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. N.I.Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry, Saint Petersburg.
3. Zakharova M.V. (2002): Characteristics of blackberry culture in the North-West Caucasus. [Agr. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. Kuban State Agrarian University, Krasnodar.
4. Kazakov I.V., Kichina V.V., Gruner L.A. (1999): Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids. In: Sedov E.N. (ed.) Program and methods of variety investigation of fruit, berry and nut crops. VNIISPK, Orel, 383-385.
5. Strik B.C., Finn C.E. (2012): Blackberry Productions Systems – a Worldwide Perspective. In: Proc. International Rubus and Ribes Symposium. Available at http://www.actahort.org/books/946/946_56.htm. (accessed November 12, 2014).
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High temperature stress effect on the general activity of peroxidase in bark and leaf tissues of annual apple shoots has been investigated. Weaker activity in terms of extinction of enzyme system in the leaves compared to these parameters in the bark tissues of shoots was determined during the summer period. Its maximum increase (12…19 times) was observed in leaves under the conditions of hard hyperthermia and drought (early July). A level of enzyme activity under artificially modeled stress impacts depended upon an apple variety. The obtained results pointed out the peroxidase involving in response to high temperature and drought effect, therefore this enzyme system may serve as an additional diagnostic index of fruit plant resistance to the above mentioned abiotic stresses.
1. Andreeva V.A. (1988): Peroxidase enzyme. Participation in the plant protective mechanism. Nauka, Moscow.
2. Biryuk E.N. (2002): Peroxidase: its functions and role in plant organisms. In: Coll. Proc. Fruit growing Vol. 14. RUE “Institute for Fruit Growing”, Samokhvalovichi, 151-180. (in Russian).
3. Veselov V.A., Veselova T.A. (1997): Stress and adaptation. Nauka, Moscow. (in Russian).
4. Gazaryan I.G. (1992): Peroxidase of plants. In: Results of science and engineering. VINITI, Moscow, 4-28. (in Russian).
5. Golyshkina L.V. (2007): Electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel of protein systems of fruit crops. In: Breeding and variety investigation of horticultural crops. VNIISPK, Orel, 56-63. (in Russian).
6. Golyshkina L.V., Krasova N.G., Galasheva A.M. (2010): Use of some physiological and biochemical indications in winter hardiness diagnostics of apples from VNIISPK collection. In: Proc Int. Conf. The development of I.V. Michurins heritage on genetics and breeding of fruit crops. XXII Michurinskie readings. VNIIGISPR, Michurinsk, 99-104. (in Russian).
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13. Stalnaia I.D., Garishvili T.G. (1977): Method of MDA determination with the help of thiobarbituric acid. In: Orekhovich V.I. (ed.) Contemporary methods in biochemistry. Meditsina, Moscow, 66-67. (in Russian).
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The cultivation of blackberry cultivars with different types of growth has shown that the most suitable medium for micro clonal propagation of the majority of studied cultivars is Lee de Fossard medium while Murashige-Skooga and Gamborg media are better to use for the elongation. Erie has the highest propagation coefficient – 7.4, while Agawam has the lowest coefficient – 5.2. The potential of blackberry propagation is influenced by cultivar features, composition of nutrient media and dates of introduction in culture.
1. Vysotskii V.A. (2011): Biotechnological methods in up-to-date gardening. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo Rossii [Fruit and berry growing of Russia], 26: 2-10. (in Russian).
2. Gruner L.A. (2014): Blackberries. In: Pomology. Strawberries. Raspberries. Nut and rare crops, Vol. 5. VNIISPK, Orel, 300-308. (in Russian).
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4. Konstantinov E.L. (2001): Peculiarities of fluctuation asymmetry of a leaf blade of Betula pendula Roth. as a species-bioindicator. [biol. sci. cand. thesis]. K.E. Tsiolkovskii Kaluga State University, Kaluga. (in Russian).
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6. Kuznetsov M.N., Golyshkin L.V., Dolmatov E.A. (2009): Methodical instructions on the determination of fluctuation asymmetry of an apple leaf. VNIISPK, Orel. (in Russian).
7. Golyshkin L.V., Pavlenkova G.A. (2013): Ecological estimation of the environment influence on the condition of lilac in Orel Nechernozemie. In: Proc. I Int. conf. Nontraditional, new and forgotten plant species: scientific and practical aspects of cultivation. M.M. Gryshko NBG, Kiev, 249-252. (in Russian).
8. Pavlenkova G.A., Golyshkin L.V. (2013): Estimation of the ecological condition of the environment in Orel and Orel district according to the values of fluctuation asymmetry of a lilac leaf. In: Proc. XVI Int. Conf. Fruit growing, seed raising, introduction of woody plants. Krasnoyarsk, 126-129. (in Russian).
9. Pavlenkova G.A., Golyshkin L.V. (2014): Methodical instructions on the determination of fluctuation asymmetry of a lilac leaf (Syringa vulgaris L.). VNIISPK, Orel. (in Russian).
The research has been done under the financial support of RFBR (Project ¹ 14-04-32113mol-a)In the field experiment the lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) accumulation has been studied in Sputnitsa raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) organs and tissues. Plants were cultivated without fertilizing but with N90P90K90 application. At the stage of fruiting the raspberry plants were picked out and divided into organs: root, rhizome, floricane stems, primocane stems, laterals (fruiting branchlets) and berries. Stem bark and phloem were detached from a xylem and those tissues were analyzed separately. Leaves of floricane and primocane stems were also analyzed separately. The maximum Pb accumulation was observed in roots (0,511±0,056 ppm dry wt), the minimum – in fruits (0,033±0,005 ppm dry wt), respectively. Pb concentration in tissues of stems increased in proportion to their age: the highest Pb concentration was in perennial rhizomes and the lowest one was in primocane stems. An average Pb content in the plants cultivated with N90P90K90 application was positively higher than without mineral fertilizing. Ni was distributed in raspberry plants more evenly than Pb. The organs and tissues differed in Ni concentration not more than by 2…3 times. Ni accumulation was observed in roots (0,294±0,038 ppm dry wt). For all this Ni was accumulated in roots 20% more on the N90P90K90 background than without fertilization. In absence of fertilizers, Ni was accumulated first of all in roots, as well as in bark and phloem of floricane stems. Under N90P90K90 application the plants accumulated larger content of the element in the underground organs and its distribution in the above-ground part of the plants was more evenly. Ni content in raspberry fruits was on the level of other above-ground organs (0,136±0,028 ppm dry wt).
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3. Vetrova O.A., Kuznetsov M.N., Leonicheva E.V., Motyleva S.M., Mertvishcheva M.E. (2014): Accumulation of heavy metals in strawberry plants grown in conditions of antropogennic pollution. Agricultural Biology, 5: 113-119. (in Russian).
4. Voityuk E.A. (2011): Heavy metal accumulation in soil and plants in conditions of the urban environment (by way in Chita). [Biol. Sci. Cand. Thesis]. N. G. Chernyshevsky Trans-Baikal State University for Humanities and Pedagogics, Chita. (in Russian).
5. Gromova V.S. (1995): The influence of continuous application of mineral fertilizers on the agroecological characteristics of apple orchard soil and fruit. Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo rossii [Fruit and berry-culture of Russia], 2: 153-157. (in Russian).
6. Karpova E.A. (2008): Mobile compounds of heavy metals in plough layers of soddy podzolic soils in conditions of the continuous fertilization. In: Ecological Agrochemistry [Ekologicheskaia agrokhimiia]. MGU, Moscow, 12-29. (in Russian).
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