rds and exceed
the existing assortment in production and biological traits, is a general element of breeding
tasks. A number of scientific institutions of the country are engaged in the development of
different fruit crop varieties and releasing the best o
f them. Brief descriptions of some stone
fruit crop varieties (sour cherry, sweet cherry, plum, and apricot) developed at VNIISPK and
included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements from 1979 till 2013 are given in the
varieties grown in the Leningrad region. The varieties have been classified according to the
dates of berry ripening. We have identified the varieties with a high degree of permanent
flowering capacity according to the following parameters: the length of the autumn fruiting
zone and number of laterals on a branch. The greatest potential productivity of the studied
varieties has been identified to select them for practical use.
action, which enhance human resistance to unfavorable factors of the environment and
radiation. Black currant significantly exceeds a majority of crops in the contents of ascorbic
acid and phenolics in berries. Having high technological qualities, black currant is a good raw
material for processing and, thus, an excellent source of vitamins during winter and spring.
53 black currant varieties and 96 elite and selected seedlings (including 18 varieties
and elite and selected forms of VNIISPK breeding) have been estimated for the contents of
biologically active substances in berries: ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and phenolics (vitamin P),
i.e. anthocyans, leukoanthocyans and catechins. The best genotypes have been singled out
according to each biochemical index: with ascorbic acid content ≥200,0 mg/100 g; anthocyans
≥ 200,0 mg/100 g; leukoanthocyans ≥400,0 mg/100 g; catechins ≥ 150,0 mg/100 g; sum of
phenolics ≥700,0 mg/100 g. The varieties, elite and selected forms have been picked out,
which are characterized by a high level of accumulation of studied indices in berries with their
low variability depending on meteorological conditions of the vegetative period. A group of
patterns have been revealed that combine the contents of vitamin C and phenolics on a
desirable level under a high homeostatic character and at the same time they are of interest
for breeding for improved chemical composition of berries: Ametist, Orlovskaya serenada,
3095-22-42 ELS, 2746-7-51.
buckthorn leaves and fruit are considered. These results have been obtained by a liquid
Varietal features of Fe, Zn and Cu contents in fruit and leaves have been studied.
Varieties accumulating maximum and minimum of biogenic elements have been singled out.
Element variation limits and coefficients of the correlation between element contents in
leaves and fruit have been determined. It is recommended to use leaf analysis on biogenic
element contents for the purpose of early diagnostics of sea buckthorn berry quality.
period and the results of the negative temperature effect (25 degrees below zero) are
given. Study of water fractional composition in vegetative organs of apple varieties have
shown that in an autumn-winter period the quantity of bound water in shoot bark and buds
sharply raises and the quantity of available water is decreased. In winter hardy apple varieties
Antonovka obyknovennaya, Bolotovskoye, Imrus, Orlovim, Svezhest, Sinap orlovsky,
Rozhdestvenskoye and Yubilar the correlation of bound water to available water is
significantly higher than in insufficiently winter hardy varieties (Melba). The indices of the
water fractional composition and the correlation of bound water to available water may serve
as indirect showings of apple resistance to unfavorable autumn-winter streses.
system of red currant leaves in connection with the drought-resistance are given. The
dependence of water balance on genotype biological features and phenophase of plant
development is shown. Low water-holding ability by leaves occurs during the phase of
ripening berries (July). Red currant genotypes: «Gollandskay krasnay»,«1432-29-98» and
«1426-21-80» have a high percent of water-holding ability. According to the research the
genotypes of red currant: «Gollandskay krasnay», « Niva», «1432-29-98» and «1426-21-80»
having a high pigment complex and drought-resistance have been selected. The positive
correlation between the contents of chlorophyll sum and carotinoids has been identified.
discussed in the paper. Anthracnose affects raspberry in all zones of growing. In conditions of
Orel District early in June the disease occurs on annual shoots as single grey-white spots with
a wide purple border.
In a number of raspberry varieties the disease severely affects the pedicles. As a result,
even green berries dry up. In favorable for the parasite weather the disease may affect berry
stones. In this case the yield nearly completely loses its marketability.
Didymella applanata S. is widespread in all regions of growing both in our country and
abroad. This disease occurs during the second part of summer on young shoots at the place of
leaf petiole attaching as dark-lilac spots, which gradually become brown and spread and band
the shoots. Mass drying up of shoots, bud dying and harsh lowing of winter hardiness are
observed in plants affected with didymella applanata S.
relevant. And here the woody plants are in the foreground. Range of woody plants should be
sufficiently diverse and resistant to unfavourable environmental effects.
Plant introduction is one of the main methods to improve the assortment. 16 species
and 7 forms of North American introduced plants growing in the arboretum of our institute
were selected as the objects of study.
According to our research the most ornamental of these are Quercus rubra L., Abies
concolor (Gord.) Engelm and Ptelea trifoliata L. Their decorative qualities are maintained
throughout the year in the absence of signs of aging. Betula lenta L. Betula lutea Michx., Juglans
rupestris Engelm., Mahonia aquifolia (Pursch) Nutt), Mahonia pinnata (Lag)Feddl and Ptelea
trifoliata L. are the most resistant ones to pests and diseases. Quercus rubra L. Quercus
macrocarpa Michx., Juglans rupestris Engelm., Thuja Occidentalis f. Columna L. Sðàth, Picea
Canadensis Britt., Berberis ottawiensis f. purpurea Schneid(B.thunbergii x B.vulgaris) and Ptelea
trifoliata L. have excellent and good fruiting capacity.
These studies will be continued.
reduction in planting areas, increase in orchard age, decline in the level of yield and a number
of other problems are observed. The revival of the horticulture may be only at the cost of the
development and realization of a complex system of measures directed to the development of
this industry and improvement of its economical appeal. The influence of the external factors
on the activity of horticultural enterprises should be taken into consideration and also
internal reserves must be at most used. On state backing terms it would allow getting over the