this period of time 47 apple varieties with fruit of different dates of ripening have been
developed and included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Admitted for Use.
Two promising sections of breeding have especially been noted – the creation of triploid apple
varieties from crossings with different chromosomes and the development of scab immune
varieties, in which the Institute has a priority. The productive-biological characteristics of
three triploid apple varieties included in the State Register in 2013 are given; one of them has
an immunity to scab (gene Vf).
apple species from Eastern Asia at the Maikop Experimental Station of VIR. The species with
dominant inheritance of resistance to diseases have been.
of Belarus have been studied at the Kaluga State Variety Plot. The results are given. In winter
hardiness new varieties are on the level of regionalized cultivars and in productivity they
significantly exceed these cultivars. Rozhdestvenskoye, Blagovest, Siabryna, Pospekh and
Nadzeyna had high resistance to scab of leaves relative to the control varieties in epiphytotic
years. Fruit of Siabryna, Rozhdestvenskoye and Blagovest were noted with the highest taste
marks. New pear variety Prosto Maria exceeded control variety Krasavitza Chernenko in
winter hardiness, yield capacity and taste qualities of fruit. Perspective varieties have been
suggested by the Kaluga State Variety Plot for including in the State Register in 2013.
bred in Poland. The researches were carried out in the forest-steppe of the Ukraine. All
investigated cultivars showed high adaptivity to the conditions of the region as well as earlyripening
and high productivity and cultivars ‘Ligol’, ‘Lodel’, ‘Perla’ and ‘Lired’ demonstrated a
rapid increase of the productivity in the first years of fruiting. As regards the characteristics
valuable for economy they exceed the control cultivars ‘Slava Peremozhtsyam’ and ‘Radogost’
and are perspective for the production testing in the Ukraine’s forest-steppe and Polessye.
Brief characteristics of the best apple cultivars ‘Ligol’, ‘Perla’, ‘Vitos’ and ‘Odra’, which
combine most of the traits ensuring the efficiency in production and popularity among
consumers, are given.
resistance to scab and powdery mildew. The most productive cross combinations, which
allow obtaining 83…84 % of seedlings with no signs of scab lesions and
87…97% of highly resistant and resistant apple hybrids, have been identified. Donor
properties of cv. Syabryna and hybrids of different genetic origin have been confirmed:
2000-46/61 (21/175 × Empire) – M. sieboldii and 2000-41/70 (Milena × 78-15/115) o.p.) –
Agrotechnology and Nursery were studied according to the III and IV components of winter
hardiness from January to March in the conditions of the artificial freezing of apple shoots by
modeling of damaging factors. The results of the investigation are presented. It is noted that
apple variety ‘Vasyugan’ keeps frost hardiness after thaw on a high level from January to
March under 34°C below zero according to the IV component.
Caucasus for 2005…2012 were considered. Winter hardiness assessment of pear varieties in
the MOS VIR collection was carried out (trees of 50 and 5 years old). There was a significant
differentiation among pear varieties in a resistance to a low temperature stress. Eastern
European varieties occurred to be the most resistant ones, the majority of which, however,
had insufficiently high quality of fruit. High frost resistance was marked in some varieties of
the Crimea and the Caucasus. Winter-hardy varieties Dolgohvostka, Izumrud, Mahsuldar,
Lastochka, Nezabudka can be recommended for use in the foothills of the north-western
Caucasus. These and some other varieties can be recommended also for use in breeding
programs of the southern zone of the fruit-growing as sources of winter hardiness.
level (gene D). Complex-valuable pear cultivar Samarskaya krasavitsa was used as a maternal
component of crossings; a pollen mixture of hybrids with D gene of M.V. Kachalkin selection
was used as a paternal component. Crossings were made in 2010; in 2011, 239 hybrids were
grown, including 92 hybrids (39%) with a dwarf phenotype. In 2012, 56 dwarf hybrids were
studied. The average height of the biennial seedlings was 21.2 cm, the average increase for the
second season - 13.2 cm.
uncovered culture in winter in conditions of the northern commercial zone of viticulture.
Easily rooted rootstocks Gravesak, Andros, Vierul-3 and 101-14 assure the highest output of
grafted seedlings. Since rootstocks have differences in economic-biological characteristics
(degree of resistance to drought, lime, salts, wood crop, effect of grafted grape varieties on
growth and productivity), rootstock-growing farms should have nurseries with several
rootstock varieties and produce grafted seedlings on the rootstocks, according to the order of
regime (residual water deficit, water-keeping ability of leaves, degree of water logging
recovery in course of modeling of dehydration and heat shock) and functional activity of
photosynthetic apparatus in modeled conditions. There was determined a high correlative
bond of plant drought resistance after natural drought with a rang sum of water regime
components and concerning changes of relative Electron Transport Rate. Varieties and
selected seedlings with a high level of drought resistance were isolated: apple var. Gala and
Tayezhnoye, cherry var. Vladimirskaya, Pamyat Gorshkova, Vechernyaya Zarya and Prunus
callusogenesis was determined by the genotype of the initial variety. The greatest callus
formation was characteristic for the varieties in B5 medium. The formed calluses were
morphogenic ones, with dense consistence and knobby surface. The color varied from white
The peculiarities of callus formation using picloram are shown. Auxin activity of this
preparation has been revealed as in the darkness so in the light. The optimal concentration of
picloram (4mg/l of the medium) was determined for apple callusogenesis. That concentration
provided the formation of the morphogenic callus both in the darkness and in the licht. The
roots in cv. Yubiley Moskvy, Afrodita and Svezhest and the buds in cv. Orlovskoye polesie
Callus formation ability of apple varieties depending on the seguence of florescence is
demonstrates the a rapid response of the photosynthetic apparatus to the effect of the
environmental factors, including low positive temperatures. As a result of its application it has
been established that the photosynthetic apparatus of plum, pear, and apple is steady against
the effect of low positive temperatures. Plum leaves are more sensitive to cold action. A
degree of sensitivity depends on the vegetation period. In the middle of the vegetation the
sensitivity is higher. At apple-tree leaves in the middle of vegetation the varietal distinctions
in the reaction to the cold action have been noted.
mildew and fruit rot in the apple plantations of the intensive type in Moldova are presented.
The two-year cycle of the test was carried out in 2011-2012 at the Technological
Experimental Station “Kodrul”. Apple varieties Idared, Mantuaner and Winter Banana were
planted in 1993. Planting scheme was 4m x 2m. The fungicide showed the biological
effectiveness against apple diseases at the standard level and higher - 91.2% and 94.3% when
tested at a rate of 0,3-0,35 l/ha.
and compotes from them are given. Among the investigated varieties Priam has the highest
content of vitamin C. Liberty, Priam and 414-91 are suitable for using their fruit for compotes
of good quality. The content of ascorbic acid in compotes is 4…6 times less than in fresh fruit.
At the same time, adding of dried eglantine fruit in apple compote increases the biological
value of the product by 20 % on average. The obtained compotes can expand and diversify the
human diet in the winter-spring period.
products of five different apple varieties, which have been grown in conditions of the Ukraine
forest-steppe. Fruit have been estimated for the contents of the main biochemical and
production-biological indices for the purpose of selecting the most suitable fruit for drying.
Certain varieties have been selected, the apples of which are characterized by high
marketability and they accumulate the largest amount of dry substance, sugars, ascorbic acid,
etc. A close direct correlation relationship has been determined between apple weight and
their marketability. Fresh and dried fruit have been estimated for a complex of organoleptic indices. A volume of waste products in the process of apple preparing for drying and an
output of finished products have been calculated. 5,9…8,1 kg of fresh apples (depending upon
the variety) is required to produce 1 kg of dried products. By a complex of studied indices the
most suitable for drying apple varieties have been singled out.
were compared for their ability to take roots. To achieve the best result were made furrows
on the basal ends of the cuttings. Stimulants of root formation were also used. The first
adventitious roots on cuttings were formed on 24…28 days. Their bulk formation was on
34…38 days after planting. The most active formation of adventitious roots occurred near lower buds, in callus, and on the internodes, where furrows had been made. The most
developed roots were formed on the internodes and callus.
It is concluded that genetic features of a variety primarily influence the ability of
hardwood cuttings to take roots.
times, which have been planted on vigorous and moderate vigorous rootstocks. Such orchards
demand significant costs for thinning. At present certain preparations have been developed,
which provide reducing of shoot growth; Regalis 10 WG is one of them. Information on this
preparation and its application in old orchards before stubbing is given.
Russian Federation and reflects the main reasons for the low economic efficiency of the
industry, among which there is a widespread decline in the area of fruit crops, low
productivity, lack of a modern base for a long-term storage of fruits and berries, low level of
mechanization of production processes in a majority of farms, lack of a modern system of
nurseries. Prospects of the development of national horticulture, based on the industry
transition to the intensive way of the development are indicated.
economic expediency of grape gardening development is shown. The feasibility of viticulture
introduction in the republic agroclimatic zones on the basis of a large-scale Vitis nursery foundation (by using new resistant high-quality cultivars) is scientifically proved. The article
presents the assessments of regionalized and new cultivars of Vitis for covered and uncovered
crops; the perspective grape cultivars with high biological plasticity and winter-hardiness,
which are the most promising ones as candidates for introduction, have been selected. The
conclusion based on the long-term laboratory and field tests has confirmed that Belarus
industrial wine growing is capable to provide high profitability and competitiveness of the
corresponding production. So it is one of the most perspective branches in the general
structure of gardening.
Pashkevich, the most prominent national pomologist, scientist and pomiculturist. His works
have laid grounds for the development of national scientific horticulture. When assessing the
contribution of V.Pashkevich to science and practice, N.I.Vavilov called him “a pioneer of
scientific pomiculture”. For 60 years of his scientific and pedagogical activities, V.Pashkevich
trained a great number of horticulturists.