GENETICS, BREEDING, STUDY OF VARIETIES
Data characterizing the peculiarities of meiotic division in triploid apple seedling 25-37- 46 are given. It has been determined that bulk disorders in the meiosis process at the microsporogenesis lead to the generation of unbalanced by the number chromosomes of gametes, which adversely affects the pollen viability. As a result, triploid apple seedling 25-37-46 should not be recommended for using in hybridization.
Stimulative apomixis in pear and its use for obtaining haploids was investigated. The results of this investigation are given in this paper. The goals of the study were the following:
to reveal pear varieties inclined to the stimulative apomixis;
to determine the character of trait segregation in pear seedlings occurred as a result of the stimulative apomixis;
to search among the representatives of plant subfamily Pommoideae, the pollen of which could have the highest stimulative effect;
to develop the methods of cultivation of immature apomictic seeds with the aim of increasing of a haploid output;
It was stated that a substantial part of pear varieties (over 50%) from the used ones in that experiment under the non-performed remote hybridization with representatives of other lines of Pommoideae subfamily was capable to form seeds of apomictic origin. In most cases they resulted in diploid plants. Their number rather depended on the genotypic peculiarities of the maternal plant and in certain combinations it might reach 25% from a number of pollinated flowers.
Genotypes having the highest possible inclination to the apomixis were singled out: 29-4, 40-4, «Bretfelps», 24-50-98, 24-59-255, «Belorusskaya pozdnia», «Maikopskaya krasavitsa», «Druzhba» and others.
Having used genetic markers we discovered that embryo sacks, in which meiosis occurred, initiated apomictic seeds. Actually, all plants had a diploid set of chromosomes but only one was a haploid. It should be noted that haploid and diploid occurring in the progenies of pear varieties was stipulated by one and the same process terminating on different stages. In the first case, a haploid ovule started dividing and initiated a haploid plant. In the second case, the restoration of diploidy occurred as a result of the first division of a parthenogenetically developing haploid ovule.
On the second stage with the aim of haploid output increasing, the immature apomictic seeds were extracted from ovaries of 55…60 days old and were cultivated in vitro. 9 samples from the combination «Belorusskaya pozdnia» x Chaenomeles Japanese were studied cytologically. The majority of samples in the somatic cells had a diploid set of chromosomes (2n=2x=34); and only in two samples – ¹ 1 and ¹8 – in certain points of growth there was noted a presence of metaphase plates with a chromosome number of 17, i.e. haploid. It should be noted that in sample ¹ 1 the haploid set of chromosomes was noticed in epidermal cells. In sample ¹ 8 in two cases in meristematic cells were noticed only metaphases with 17 chromosomes; and in other two cases were noticed both haploid metaphases and diploid ones. Probably, the two latter samples were chimaeras.
At present the survived germs have been propagated. The total quantity of copies (test-tubes with conglomeration) runs to 1212 pieces, while the average number of buds and shoots is from 7 to 12 pieces in the conglomeration. The samples having haploid set of chromosomes ¹ 8 («Belorusskaya pozdnia» x Chaenomeles Japanese) and ¹ 1 («Belorusskaya pozdnia» x Chaenomeles Japanese) are presented with 352 and 378 copies, respectively.
This paper presents the features of development during micropropagation of four samples of apomictic plants derived from embryos after pollination with pollen henomelesa Japanese pear by 55 and 70 days of their development. A different response patterns in the test concentration of cytokinin (6BAP) and in combination with GC.
For the first time traced the origin of apomictic plant roots during rhizogenesis and studied the anatomical structure of roots in the conditions in vitro. In practice, first noted by somatic embryogenesis, which is formed from the callus cells formed during rhizogenesis at the base of microshoots apomictic.
The results works with pear breeding in VNIISPK are summed up. The discription of the most prospective varieties of breeding of the Institute is given. Bibliography 3 titles.
Sour and sweet cherry, plum, apricot varieties, which have been referred to the Strain Testing comprehensivery discribed.
The estimation of selected red currant seedlings (302 samples) for resistance to American powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae Berk. et Curt.) has been made on the natural inflectional background. On the background of the epiphytic development of the fungus (2010, 2012) a group of highly resistant (immune) seedlings has been distinguished, it has made up 11% from the studied samples. In the main, they have been obtained from cultivars Rote Spätlese and Rondom, progenies of R. multiflorum Kit.
Highly resistant selected seedlings are developed on a broad genetic base with involving 4…5 species of red currant. They combine the immunity to powdery mildew with other production valuable traits. These seedlings present a new valuable initial material in red currant breeding. Some of them are regarded as candidates in the best specimens including OF 1686-30-128.
The results of the investigations of pear rooting and adaptation at clonal micro propagation are presented. The effect of the varietal features, nutrient medium, type, concentration and methods of the auxin application on pear rooting in vitro has been studied. MS medium with mineral base halt diluted and with addition of indole-butyric acid (1mg/l) and naphthaleneacetic acid (1mg/l) occur to be mostly effective. A positive effect of elicitors on the adaptation of pear in vitro to non-sterile conditions has been determined. The possibility of the micro grafting application for increasing the output of the adaptive planting material of hardly rooting and non-rooting pear seedlings at clonal micro propagation is shown. The treatment of rootstock cut sections with ascorbic acid solution raises the graft striking.
STORAGE AND PROCESSING
Sea-buckthorn varieties Serafima, Karamelka, Petrovka and Prima Dona have been distinguished by a complex of indices for juice processing. These varieties are characterized by juice output about 80%; contents of soluble dry substances – 9,3%, 9,0%, 8,8%, 8,6%; sugar acid index – 1,8; 3,1; 3,4; 2,4; ascorbic acid 95,5 mg/100 g; 148,1 mg/100 g; 56,0/100 g; 88,0 mg/100 g, respectively.
PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS
96 black currant elite and selected seedlings of VNIISPK breeding have been estimated for the contents of nutrient substances in berries: soluble dry substances (SDS), sum of sugars, organic acids and sugar-acid index (SAI). The best genotypes combining the desirable level of a studied character (SDS ≥ 14,0%, sum of sugars ≥ 10,0%, organic acids ≤ 3,0%, SAI ≥ 3,5) with its high stability and being of interest for breeding for the improved chemical composition of berries have been singled out. A cluster of samples with berry weight 1,0 g and more have been chosen according to the complex of nutrient substances as claimants to cultivars: 3045-16-68, 3031-20-16, 3059-48-69, 2150-33-164, 3014-15-233, 2083-32-153, 3803-45-138 ELS, 3212-16-46 ELS, 3264-46-153 and 3007-2-154.
The chemical composition of sweet cherry varieties bred at the VNIISPK and other research institutions has been studied. The contents of nutrient and biologically active substances of these varieties are characterized. Different variability according to some indices of biochemical composition of fruit has been determined: low – in the contents of soluble dry substances and sugars; above middle – in the contents of organic acids and sugar-acid index; high – in the contents of ascorbic acid and P-active substances. The best genotypes have been picked out according to each biochemical component.
Studies carried out in the laboratory of physiology of the VNIISPK resistance. Material the 21 of apple varieties breeding VNIISPK. Frost hardiness study in the middle of winter in the artificially modeled conditions allowed estimating the potential of apple variety resistance to winter frosts and revealing varietal differences in buds and basic tissues of shoots according to their winter hardiness. The modeling of winter frost -38°C showed that the majority of studied apple varieties were able to develop maximum frost hardiness of buds and tissues. Antonovka obyknovennaya (ñ), Bolotovskoye, Zdorovie, Imrus, Rozhdestvenskoye and Sinap orlovsky were frost hardy unter -40°C. Imrus and Sinap orlovsky showed their frost hardiness of buds and tissues unter -42°C. Under all temperature regimes apple varieties Imrus and Sinap orlovsky were frost hardi enough.
In 2011…2012 years in plantings of the fruit cultures VNIISPK and in quotient gardens of Orlovsky region exists the growing ruin of parts of the krones and bearing fruit trees. On type of the damage and presence of the caterpillars two ages is determined that this is result of sharply increased number vermin (Cossus cossus L.). In article is brought description symptoms on damages tree, biological cycle of the vermin and is specified measures of the fight with him.
ECOLOGY AND SAFETY
The effect of the application of lime (2 t/ha) and zeolite containing rock (3…24 t/ha) on the contents of Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu and Fe in black currant berries was studied in the field experiment on the grey forest moderately loamy soil. The gross content of heavy metals in the soil of the plot exceeded the background level by 2…6 times; the content of mobile heavy metals was lower than maximum admissible concentration. The study was conducted in years contrasting according to weather conditions: it was wet in 2006, and hot and droughty in 2007. It was determined that heavy metal income in black currant berries depended on the genetic features of plants, physiological significance of the element for plants, doze of the zeolite containing rock, and weather conditions of the vegetation periods. The application of the zeolite containing rock did not have an influence on Pb contents in berries and changed the contents of Ni, Cu, Zn and Fe. The liming led to Pb content increasing, reduced Cu, Zn and Fe accumulation and did not affect the content of Ni. The contents of Ni, Zn and Fe were accumulated most intensively in berries during the drought period. The contents of Pb and Cu in berries were steady by years and did not depend on the weather conditions.