GENETICS, BREEDING, STUDY OF VARIETIES
They are shown reactions variety ofapple trees of the year period of the maturation on recovery of the stem from cancer oust diseases in extreme weather condition 2010.Noted changes inpassing phase apple trees and biological cycles pathogen and vermin’s under influence abiotic stress: speed maturation fruit and early pawning fruit bud, intensive and long-lasting secondary growing one-year shoot; partial itself recoveryfrom cancerous defeats ofthe trunkbeside sort Melba, Zchelannoye, Bordovoye, Papirovka (on 0,2...0,6 balls). It is shown efficiency sanitary action -a reduction of the defeat on 0,4...2,3 balls. It is specified negative consequences anomalous long fervors and droughts for garden inseason 2011: reinforcement periodicityfruiting, consolidation activitiestrunkcalvermin’s.
A simplified field method of determination of apple variety resistance to monilia fruit rot is suggested. Systematic calculation of middle amount infected M. fructigenaapple fruit on 5 optimal loaded by yield trees for the period of vegetation during 3 years allow trustworthy definite maximal degree of variety defeat, what expose potential of varietal resistance for disease and give the basis for its immunological characteristic. Resistance of 33 varieties of apple in spectrum from resistant for high susceptible is definited. The simplicity of execution and data informativeness allow recommendation method for using in the primary and state variety investigation.
Contents of ascorbic acid and peculiarities of its accumulation in fruit of scab immune applevarieties developed in VNIISPK
The comparative analysis of ascorbic acid accumulation in fruit of scab immune apple varieties has been carried out. High variability has been revealed among varieties according to this character. The best genotypes having higher contents of vitamin C in fruit have been picked out. The influence of meteorological conditions of the vegetative period on vitamin C accumulation in fruit has been noted out. The maximum contents of ascorbic acid were observed in less warm years with redundant humidity. The direct favourable dependence of ascorbic acid contents on the hydrothermal coefficient has been determined.
The experience of establishing a new intensive breeding orchard by new resource-saving methods is demonstrated. Principal stages of establishing methods and their importance are described. The advantages of these methods over the common ones are underlined. The possibilities of the application of the described methods are formulated.
ECOLOGY AND SAFETY
Accumulation of heavymetal mobile compounds in orchard soils from the southern area of Non-chernozem zone
Accumulation of heavy metal (HM) mobile compounds in the profile of grey forest soils was investigated at orchard agro-coenosis of Bryansk and Orel regions. Mobile forms of Cu, Znand Pbwere extracted from soils simultaneously with two different extragents: acetate-ammonium buffer solution with pH 4,8 and 1M solution HNO3. The first extragent characterizes the whole reserve of HM forms potentially available for plants. The second extragent extracts mainly water-soluble and interchange forms of microelements. The quantity and correlation of HM mobile combinations in the soil profile in the orchards depended on the conditions of pedogenesis and intensity of anthropogenic load. At the intensive orchard of VNIISPK (Orel region) the content of acid-soluble combinations of Pb, Znand Cuin the layer 0...60 sm was 3...6 times higher than at the “ecological” orchard of Bryansk SAA (State Agricultural Academy) that had low pesticide load. But for all that only trace quantities of water-soluble and interchange forms of Pband Znwere found in the soil profile of the intensive orchard. The reason of that was Pband Znspecific absorption by carbonates.